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Part 1: Study Outline


1. Objectives of this study

This study seeks to accurately identify attitude characteristics and problems of the youth of Japan by examining changes in their attitudes over time and comparing those with the attitudes of young people in other nations. The objective is to provide reference data that will inform the consideration of policies related to the young.


2. Items of the study

  1. Family
  2. School
  3. Job
  4. Community and volunteering
  5. Nation and society
  6. Information and communication
  7. Outlook on life

3. Countries surveyed

Japan, South Korea, the United States of America (U.S.A.), the United Kingdom (U.K.), France (Total of five countries)
     Changes in the countries surveyed from the first survey until this most recent one are as follows.

Changes in the countries surveyed from the first survey to the eighth < CSV Data >
Changes in the countries surveyed from the first survey to the eighth

4. Respondents

In Japan, South Korea, and the U.S.A., young people between the ages of 18 and 24 (inclusive) as of November 1, 2007, were interviewed. In the U.K. and France, young people between the ages of 18 and 24 (inclusive) as of September 1, 2008, were interviewed.

5. Survey period

In Japan, South Korea, and the U.S.A., the survey was done from November through December of 2007. In the U.K. and France, the survey was done from September through October of 2008.
     Below is the list of the survey periods from the first survey to the seventh.

First survey...............

October-November 1972

Second survey..........

November 1977-January 1978

Third survey..............

February-June 1983

Fourth survey............

January-February and May-June 1988

Fifth survey...............

February-June 1993

Sixth survey...............

February-June 1998

Seventh survey...........

February-June 2003

6. Survey method

  1. Survey method

    As a general rule, 1,000 samples were recovered for each country. This was done through individual interviews conducted by survey administrators (interviewers).

  2. Sampling method, etc

    The sampling method, the number of questionnaires recovered, and the language used in the questionnaire for each country are as shown in the table below.

      Sampling method Questionnaires recovered Language used
    Japan Stratified two-stage sampling  (details below) 1,090 Japanese
    South Korea The country was divided into 23 strata over large cities (seven cities) and eight regions (cities and counties) so that samples could be extracted from 101 points. Samples were extracted according to the number assigned in each region by gender and age. 1,000 Korean
    U.S.A. The country was divided into nine regions and three city sizes so that samples could be extracted from 101 points. Samples were extracted according to the number assigned in each region by gender, age (three groups: 18-19 years old, 20-21 years old, 22-24 years old), and race. 1,011 English
    U.K. The country was divided up into 35 administrative units and seven city sizes so that samples could be extracted from 103 points. Samples were extracted according to the number assigned in each region by age (four groups: 18-19 years old, 20-21 years old, 22-23 years old, 24 years old), and employment status. 1,012 English
    France The country was divided into nine areas and five city sizes so that samples could be extracted from 103 points. Samples were extracted according to the number assigned in each region by gender, age, and occupation of the head of household. 1,039 French
  3. Details of the stratified two-stage random sampling in Japan

    <Stratified random sampling>

    Administrative units (prefectures, cities, towns and villages in the case of Japan) or regions are first divided into a number of similar "blocks" or "strata" according to some characteristic. A representative number of subjects from various subgroups, which has been prorated according to the population size, is then randomly selected.


    (a) Stratification

    Stratification is done on region and city size, based on the population at the time of the 2005 National Census.

    [Classification by region]
    The country is divided into the following five classifications, as based on prefectures as units.

    Regional classification Prefectures included
    Hokkaido/Tohoku
    (7 prefectures)

    Hokkaido, Aomori-ken, Iwate-ken, Miyagi-ken, Akita-ken, Yamagata-ken, Fukushima-ken

    Kanto (9 prefectures)

    Ibaragi-ken, Tochigi-ken, Gunma-ken, Saitama-ken, Chiba-ken, Tokyo -to, Kanagawa-ken, Yamanashi-ken, Nagano-ken

    Tokai/Hokuriku
    (8 prefectures)

    Niigata-ken, Toyama-ken, Ishikawa-ken, Fukui-ken, Gifu-ken, Shizuoka-ken, Aichi-ken, Mie-ken

    Kinki (6 prefectures)

    Shiga-ken, Kyoto-fu, Osaka-fu, Hyogo-ken, Nara-ken, Wakayama-ken

    Chugoku/Shikoku/Kyushu
    (17 prefectures)

    Tottori-ken, Shimane-ken, Okayama-ken, Hiroshima-ken, Yamaguchi-ken, Tokushima-ken, Kagawa-ken, Ehime-ken, Kochi-ken, Fukuoka-ken, Saga-ken, Nagasaki-ken, Oita-ken, Kumamoto-ken, Miyazaki-ken, Kagoshima-ken, Okinawa-ken


    [Classification by city size]
         For each region, there are the following four classifications by city size.


    1. 15 large cities (Sapporo-shi, Sendai-shi, Tokyo -to wards, Saitama-shi, Chiba-shi, Yokohama-shi, Kawasaki-shi, Shizuoka-shi, Nagoya-shi, Kyoto-shi, Osaka-shi, Kobe-shi, Hiroshima-shi, Kitakyushu-shi, Fukuoka-shi)
    2. Cities with a population of over 150,000
    3. Cities with a population of under 150,000
    4. Rural districts, counties (towns and villages)

    Though in the seventh survey city-size classifications of "cities with a population of under 150,000" were divided into "cities with a population of 50,000 or more but under 150,000" and "cities with a population of under 50,000, " the merging of cities, towns and villages following the seventh survey led to a drastic drop in the percentage of "cities with a population of under 50,000." As a result, four classifications were used for dividing by city size because "cities with a population of 50,000 or more but under 150,000" was included in "cities with a population of under 150,000."


    (b) Sample distribution

    Over 20 strata (5 regional classifications x 4 city-size classifications), based on the size of the universe in each stratus (based on the 18-24 years old population figures at the time of the 2005 National Census), the number of samples was set at 3,045, proportionally allocated over 145 points, with each point consisting of 21 samples.



    (c) Respondent extraction

    For each point (block) extracted from, the sampling interval was set at 3, counting only male and female individuals belonging to the 18-24 years old age group, and a total of 21 samples were extracted.
         The following table lists the results of allocating points and samples by region and city size.

    Allocation grid of sample numbers by region, city size (number of points) < CSV Data >
    Allocation grid of sample numbers by region, city size (number of points)

    (d) Sample recovery rate

    Regional classification sample recovery rates < CSV Data >
    Regional classification sample recovery rates

7. Population and sample recovery rate

The population and sample recovery rate by sex and age are as follows.

Population and sample recovery rate by sex, age < CSV Data >
Population and sample recovery rate by sex, age

Population and sample recovery rate by sex, age (continued)
Population and sample recovery rate by sex, age (continued)

8. Survey implementation organizations

This survey was conducted and computed by the following research organizations.
Japan           Nippon Research Center, Ltd.
South Korea      Gallup Korea
U.S.A.          Kane, Parsons & Associates, Inc.
U.K.              ICM Research
France          Ipsos France

9. Notes in reading this report

  1. In "Part 2: Outline of Survey Results" of this report, the survey results for Japan are the main focus, and there are descriptions of comparisons between countries, chronological comparisons in Japan, and male-female comparisons in Japan.

  2. Some of the questionnaire questions and answer choices quoted in the text and tables of this report have been indicated by simplification. And some of the questions from the prior survey (the seventh) have been changed. For details, please refer to the materials included in Part 3.

  3. In order to keep the questionnaires used in each country as close as possible to the general meanings intended at the time of production of the Japanese questionnaire, the questionnaire was translated from Japanese directly into the language of that country, as was the case in the last survey. For the U.K., the English questionnaire used the prior year in the U.S.A. was vetted by a research organization in the U.K., and expressions deemed inappropriate for the U.K. were modified prior to use of the questionnaire.
    Until the fifth survey, the Japanese questionnaire was translated into English, and then for non-English-speaking countries the English questionnaire was translated into the language of each country.

  4. The response rates were rounded to the first decimal point, meaning that they may not add up to exactly 100.0%. In the same manner, in the case where subtotals are computed by adding up each individual answer, the total of the response rates of each section may not correspond to the subtotals. Similarly, as indicated in the example below, the number representing the subtotal is calculated from the real values and therefore could in some cases differ from the simple total of the values shown in the table.

    <Ex.> Part 2: Outline of Survey Results
    A graph in "3. Satisfaction with family life" of "Chapter I. Family life": < CSV Data >
    A graph in "3. Satisfaction with family life" of "Chapter I. Family life"

    Out of responses to the above question, 52.7% (291) of the females gave "Satisfied" and 34.2% (189) gave "Somewhat satisfied." Though the 'Satisfied' subtotal is the combined total of "Satisfied" and "Somewhat satisfied, " the simple combined total of these in the table is 86.9%. However, the total number of females responding (291 + 189 = 480) divided by the total number of females (552) produces a total of 86.96%, which, when rounded up from the second decimal point is 87.0%


  5. In the main text, when differences in the response rates are quoted as being a certain number of "percentage points," numbers are rounded to the nearest integer.

  6. The meanings of the symbols used in the main text, figures and tables are as follows.

    N: The number of respondents who answered the question. This is the base number used when calculating the response rates and shows how many persons the total of "100%" corresponds to.
    0.0: There were respondents who gave this answer but so few that when rounding the response rate to the first decimal point it became 0.0.
    -: There were no respondents who gave this answer.
    *: Indicates an item that was not in the survey quoted in table or diagram in which there are comparisons are made between surveys of differing years.
    M.A.: Abbreviation for "multiple answers" (when there were multiple answers available for a given question).
    M.T.: Abbreviation for "multiple total, " the total responses to questions with multiple answers.
    HAND R CARD: The card that lists the response options to a question (shown to respondents so that they can answer from it). "Don not know" and "Refused" are not listed.
    Don't know / Refused: The combined total of the responses "Do not know" and "Refused."


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