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Part 2: Outline of the Survey Results


VII. Outlook on Life

5. Male-female relationships

(1) Gender roles
Q51   Do you agree or disagree with the following opinions?
(SINGLE ANSWER ONLY PER LINE)
a. Men should go to work while women should stay at home and take care of the house
b. When children are young, the mother should have the responsibility for looking after them
  1. Agree
  2. Disagree
  3. Do not know
  4. Refused

Upon being asked about their attitudes toward gender roles on the basis of two statements, 20.6% of Japanese youth gave 'Agree' in response to "Men should go to work while women should stay at home and take care of the house." In response to the statement "When children are young, the mother should have the responsibility for looking after them, " 25.1% of Japanese youth offered agreement. So both statements elicited 'Disagree' responses among the majority of responses.

Table 7-5-1-1: Gender roles (Japan) < CSV Data >

Table 7-5-1-1: Gender roles (Japan)

Comparing the five countries, the statement "Men should go to work while women should stay at home and take care of the house" elicited the highest percentage of 'Agree' responses in the U.K. (22.5%). The order elsewhere was Japan (20.6%), the U.S.A. (18.2%), France (14.8%), and South Korea (12.4%).
      In response to the statement "When children are young, the mother should have the responsibility for looking after them, " the highest rate of agreement was given in South Korea (51.8%). The order elsewhere was the U.K. (40.8%), the U.S.A. (38.2%), France (27.8%), and Japan (25.1%).

Table 7-5-1-2: Gender roles: "Men should go to work while women should stay at home and take care of the house" (five-country comparison) < CSV Data >

Table 7-5-1-2: Gender roles: "Men should go to work while women should stay at home and take care of the house" (five-country comparison)


Table 7-5-1-3: Gender roles: "When children are young, the mother should have the responsibility for looking after them" (five-country comparison) < CSV Data >

Table 7-5-1-3: Gender roles: "When children are young, the mother should have the responsibility for looking after them" (five-country comparison)

A comparison with previous surveys on Japanese youth shows that the percentage of those agreeing with "Men should go to work while women should stay at home and take care of the house" increased over the previous survey (16.1% in the seventh to 20.6% in the eighth). There was no difference in response to the statement "When children are young, the mother should have the responsibility for looking after them."

Table 7-5-1-4: Gender roles: "Men should go to work while women should stay at home and take care of the house"
 (changes over the years) < CSV Data >

Table 7-5-1-4: Gender roles: "Men should go to work while women should stay at home and take care of the house"(changes over the years)


Table 7-5-1-5: Gender roles: "When children are young, the mother should have the responsibility for looking after them" (changes over the years) < CSV Data >

Table 7-5-1-5: Gender roles: "When children are young, the mother should have the responsibility for looking after them" (changes over the years)

An analysis of Japanese youth by gender difference shows that a higher percentage of females than males disagreed with the statement "Men should go to work while women should stay at home and take care of the house" (males: 61.5%; females: 70.5%).
      There was no difference by gender in response to the statement "When children are young, the mother should have the responsibility for looking after them."

Table 7-5-1-6: Gender roles: "Men should go to work while women should stay at home and take care of the house"
(by gender) < CSV Data >

Table 7-5-1-6: Gender roles: "Men should go to work while women should stay at home and take care of the house"(by gender)


Table 7-5-1-7: Gender roles: "When children are young, the mother should have the responsibility for looking after them"
 (by gender) < CSV Data >

Table 7-5-1-7: Gender roles: "When children are young, the mother should have the responsibility for looking after them"(by gender)

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(2) View on marriage
Q52  [HAND R CARD 46] How do you feel about marriage?
Please choose the one answer from this card that is closest to your opinion.
(SINGLE ANSWER ONLY)
  1. One should marry
  2. It is better to marry
  3. It is not necessary to marry
  4. It is better not to marry
  5. Do not know
  6. Refused

Upon being asked about their view on marriage, the largest percentage of Japanese youth answered "It is better to marry" (54.4%). This was followed by "One should marry, " at 22.9%.

Comparing the five countries, in South Korea, "It is better to marry" was given by 38.4%, while "One should marry" was given by 34.9%.
      In the U.S.A., "It is better to marry" was given by 37.1%. This was followed by "It is not necessary to marry, " at 28.8%.
      In the U.K. and France, "It is not necessary to marry" was given by the highest percentage (U.K.: 36.2%; France: 44.1%). The responses that followed were "It is better to marry" (same as above: 26.4%, 28.8%), which was given in the 20-29% range, and "One should marry" (same as above: 15.6%, 12.4%), which was given in the 10-19% range.

Table 7-5-2-1: View on marriage < CSV Data >

Table 7-5-2-1: View on marriage

A comparison with the previous survey on Japanese youth shows that the percentage of those giving "One should marry" (16.0% in the seventh to 22.9% in the eighth) increased 7 points over the previous survey.

Table 7-5-2-2: View on marriage (changes over the years) < CSV Data >

Table 7-5-2-2: View on marriage (changes over the years)

An analysis of Japanese youth by gender difference shows that a higher percentage of males than females gave "One should marry" (males: 26.8%; females: 19.2%).

Table 7-5-2-3: View on marriage (by gender) < CSV Data >

Table 7-5-2-3: View on marriage (by gender)

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(3) Reasons for it being better to marry
[ASK Q 53 IF ANSWERED Q52 WITH ANSWERS 1 OR 2, THAT IS, WHO BELIEVE THAT ONE SHOULD MARRY, OR THAT IT IS BETTER TO MARRY]
[HAND R CARD 47]
Q53  Please choose up to three reasons why you think that one should marry, or that it is better to marry, from the following.
(UP TO THREE ANSWERS)
  1. To earn the trust of society, and be equal with those around one
  2. To gain emotional stability
  3. To live with one you love
  4. To have one's own children, family, etc.
  5. For the convenience of daily life
  6. To become independent of one's parents
  7. I can live with economic comfort
  8. To ease one's parents' minds and fulfill the expectations of those around one
  9. Other (specifically,                         )
  10. Do not know
  11. Refused

When asked to give reasons as to why one should marry or it is better to marry, the highest percentage of Japanese youth gave "To have one's own children, family, etc." (79.0%). The responses that followed were "To gain emotional stability" (62.9%) and "To live with one you love" (62.6%).

Comparing the five countries, in South Korea, "To gain emotional stability, " at 81.8%, was given most. The responses that followed were, in descending order, "To live with one you love" (76.6%) and "To have one's own children, family, etc." (66.1%).
      In the U.S.A. and the U.K., "To live with one you love" elicited the highest percentage of responses (U.S.A.: 83.1%; U.K.: 74.6%). The responses that followed were, in descending order, "To have one's own children, family, etc." (same as above: 72.3%, 66.6%) and "To gain emotional stability" (same as above: 40.8%, 50.6%).
      In contrast, in France, "To have one's own children, family, etc." at 81.3%, was given most. The responses that followed were, in descending order, "To live with one you love" (69.6%) and "To gain emotional stability" (26.2%).

Table 7-5-3-1: Reasons for it being better to marry < CSV Data >
Table 7-5-3-1: Reasons for it being better to marry

An analysis of Japanese youth by gender difference shows that there were no differences.

Table 7-5-3-2: Reasons for it being better to marry (by gender) < CSV Data >
Table 7-5-3-2: Reasons for it being better to marry (by gender)

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(4) Reasons for it being better to not marry
[ASK Q54 IF ANSWERED Q52 WITH ANSWERS 3 OR 4, THAT IS, WHO BELIEVE THAT IT IS NOT NECESSARY TO MARRY, OR THAT IT IS BETTER NOT TO MARRY]
[HAND R CARD 48]
Q54  [HAND R CARD 48] Please choose up to three reasons why you think that it is not necessary to marry, or that it is better not to marry, from the following.
(UP TO THREE ANSWERS)
  1. I can become deeply involved in my job
  2. I can live with economic comfort
  3. I can enjoy my own hobbies and entertainment
  4. Even living alone I don't feel a sense of inconvenience
  5. I'm not good at interacting with the opposite sex
  6. Family brings heavier responsibilities
  7. Getting as far as marriage takes too much effort
  8. I often hear from people around me and from the mass media that marriage, childbirth, and raising children are difficult
  9. It is difficult to get along with one's spouse's (or partner's) parents and relatives
  10. Other (specifically,                          )
  11. Do not know
  12. Refused

When asked to give reasons as to why it is not necessary to marry or It is better not to marry, the highest percentage of Japanese youth gave "I can enjoy my own hobbies and entertainment" (56.8%). The responses that followed were, in descending order, "Even living alone I don't feel a sense of inconvenience" (44.1%), "I can live with economic comfort" (31.1%), and "I can become deeply involved in my job" (30.2%).

Comparing the five countries, similar to Japan, the dominant response in South Korea, the U.S.A., and the U.K. was "I can enjoy my own hobbies and entertainment" (South Korea: 61.8%; U.S.A.: 32.5%; U.K.: 22.5%). In South Korea, the responses that followed were, in descending order, "I can live with economic comfort" (56.8%), "I can become deeply involved in my job" (49.4%), and "Even living alone I don't feel a sense of inconvenience" (43.2%).
      In the U.S.A., the responses that followed were, in descending order, "Family brings heavier responsibilities" (30.0%), "I can become deeply involved in my job" (25.4%), and "I can live with economic comfort" (23.5%).
      In the U.K., the responses that followed were both given by 17.5%: "Family brings heavier responsibilities" and "I often hear from people around me and from the mass media that marriage, childbirth, and raising children are difficult."
      In France, the reason "Getting as far as marriage takes too much effort" was given most (26.3%). The responses that followed were given in the 10-19% range: "Even living alone I don't feel a sense of inconvenience" (16.5%), "I can enjoy my own hobbies and entertainment" (11.9%), and "Family brings heavier responsibilities" (11.9%).

Table 7-5-4-1: Reasons for it being better to not marry < CSV Data >
Table 7-5-4-1: Reasons for it being better to not marry

An analysis of Japanese youth by gender difference shows that higher percentages of males than females gave "I can live with economic comfort" (males: 39.0%; females: 23.9%) and "Family brings heavier responsibilities" (same as above: 20.0%, 11.1%), while higher percentages of females than males gave "It is difficult to get along with one's spouse's (or partner's) parents and relatives" (same as above: 5.7%, 19.7%) and "I often hear from people around me and from the mass media that marriage, childbirth, and raising children are difficult" (same as above: 5.7%, 14.5%).

Table 7-5-4-2: Reasons for it being better to not marry (by gender) < CSV Data >
Table 7-5-4-2: Reasons for it being better to not marry (by gender)

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(5) Number of children desired
Q55   How many children do you want, in total?
If you already have children, please include them in your answer.

   
child(ren)

Do not know

Refused

Upon being asked to give the number of children they wanted (included current children), the largest percentage gave "2" children (56.0%). This was followed by "3" children (29.6%). The mean was 2.2 children.

Comparing the five countries, similar to Japan, in the other four countries as well the highest percentage of respondents gave "2" children (South Korea: 57.2%; U.S.A.: 35.8%; U.K.: 41.0%; France: 43.2%). The mean in each country was 2.1 in South Korea, 2.3 in the U.S.A., 2.2 in the U.K., and 2.1 in France.

Table 7-5-5-1: Number of children desired < CSV Data >

Table 7-5-5-1: Number of children desired

An analysis of Japanese youth by gender difference shows that there were no differences.

Table 7-5-5-2: Number of children desired (by gender) < CSV Data >

Table 7-5-5-2: Number of children desired (by gender)

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(6) View on Divorce
Q56  [HAND R CARD 49] How do you feel about divorce?
Please choose only the one answer from this card that comes closest to your feelings.
(SINGLE ANSWER ONLY)
  1. Once married, divorce should not be allowed for any reason
  2. It should be impossible to divorce if there are children, but otherwise certain circumstances can  make divorce unavoidable
  3. Regardless of whether there are children, certain circumstances can make divorce unavoidable
  4. Divorce should be opted for if there is no mutual love in the marriage
  5. Do not know
  6. Refused

Upon being asked about their view on divorce, the largest percentage gave "It should be impossible to divorce if there are children, but otherwise certain circumstances can make divorce unavoidable" (48.4%). This was followed by "Regardless of whether there are children, certain circumstances can make divorce unavoidable, " at 30.3%.

Comparing the five countries, in South Korea, "Regardless of whether there are children, certain circumstances can make divorce unavoidable, " at 32.8%, was given most. This was followed, in descending order, by "It should be impossible to divorce if there are children, but otherwise certain circumstances can make divorce unavoidable" (28.3%) and "Once married, divorce should not be allowed for any reason" (26.4%).
      In the U.S.A. and France, the highest percentages gave "Regardless of whether there are children, certain circumstances can make divorce unavoidable" (U.S.A.: 48.2%; France: 43.4%). This was followed by "Divorce should be opted for if there is no mutual love in the marriage" (same as above: 24.4%, 37.2%).
      In contrast, in the U.K., "Divorce should be opted for if there is no mutual love in the marriage, " at 43.3%, was given most. This was followed by "Regardless of whether there are children, certain circumstances can make divorce unavoidable, " at 35.3%.

Table 7-5-6-1: View on Divorce < CSV Data >

Table 7-5-6-1: View on Divorce

A comparison with the previous survey on Japanese youth shows that the percentage giving "It should be impossible to divorce if there are children, but otherwise certain circumstances can make divorce unavoidable" (38.2% in the seventh to 48.4% in the eighth) increased 10 points over the previous survey. In contrast, the percentage giving "Regardless of whether there are children, certain circumstances can make divorce unavoidable" (same as above: 37.5% to 30.3%) fell 7 points short of that of the previous survey.

Table 7-5-6-2: View on Divorce (changes over the years) < CSV Data >

Table 7-5-6-2: View on Divorce (changes over the years)

An analysis of Japanese youth by gender difference shows that a higher percentage of males than female gave "Once married, divorce should not be allowed for any reason" (males: 15.4%; females: 8.3%).

Table 7-5-6-3: View on Divorce (by gender) < CSV Data >

Table 7-5-6-3: View on Divorce (by gender)

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