参考資料2-9 南東部の8州における公共施設に適用可能な州の障害者権利法仮訳

Public Accommodations: State-by-State Enforcement and Remedies

February 2011


Many states have their own disability rights laws that complement the "public accommodations" provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), Title III. Some states have different definitions of who is protected or what entities are required to comply, as well as different requirements or prohibitions. Some states provide an agency, either mandatory or voluntary, to assist with investigation and enforcement. States may provide different remedies, such as damages or criminal penalties for violations. See the paper, Disability Rights and Public Accommodations: State-by-State.

This paper compares the enforcement mechanisms and remedies under Title III of the ADA with those available under state disability rights laws applicable to public accommodations in the eight Southeast states.

Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • Title III of the ADA
  • Alabama
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Kentucky
  • Mississippi
  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Tennessee

Title III of the ADA

Title III of the ADA is enforceable by private individuals with disabilities in court (there is a "private right of action"). Individuals can file complaints with the U.S. Department of Justice, but they are not required to do so. In court, individuals can get "injunctive" or "equitable" relief (a court order to fix the problem, stop discriminating, or take affirmative steps), but cannot get monetary compensation, or damages, for discrimination under Title III. There are no criminal penalties or punitive damages available under Title III. The Department of Justice can impose civil penalties. Individuals who file lawsuits under Title III can recover their attorney's fees from the defendant if they win.
42 USC §§12188, 2000a-3(a).


Private Lawsuits

Under Alabama state law, there is no private right of action to sue for money damages or equitable relief (an order declaring rights or an order to stop, repair or to take affirmative steps). Hardesty v. CPRM, 391 Fed.Supp. 2d 1067, 1071 (M.D.Ala. 2005): a misdemeanor may constitute a legitimate civil cause of action, such as a claim under the ADA or a claim of negligence or other duty owed to plaintiff.
アラバマ州法では、金銭賠償あるいはエクイティ上の救済(権利の存否の確認命令、差し止め命令、修正命令、積極的な措置をとるよう求める命令)を求めて訴える私訴権はない。Hardesty v. CPRM, 391 Fed.Supp. 2d 1067, 1071 (M.D.Ala. 2005):軽罪については、ADAに基づく請求や、過失あるいは原告に対して負っている他の義務の請求のような、適法な民事上の訴訟原因を構成する場合がある。

Criminal Penalties

A person, firm or corporation who denies or interferes with admission to, or enjoyment of, full and free use of public facilities, public accommodations and transportation by "[t]he blind, the visually handicapped, and the otherwise physically disabled" is guilty of a misdemeanor. A person who interferes with the rights of "a totally or partially blind or disabled person" to full and free use of public facilities, public places and thoroughfares and to full and equal accommodations and transportation (including the right to be accompanied by a guide dog) is also guilty of a misdemeanor.

No fine or term of imprisonment is specified. Ala. Code § 21-7-5.
罰金あるいは自由刑の期間は明記されていない。Ala. Code § 21-7-5.


State Agency Enforcement

An individual with a disability who has been discriminated against in the full and equal enjoyment of public facilities and accommodations must first file a complaint with the Florida Human Relations Commission. The Commission has the power to receive, initiate, investigate, seek conciliation agreements for, hold hearings on, and act upon, complaints alleging any discriminatory practice in violation of the Florida Civil Rights Act. It also has the power to subpoena witnesses and documents, and to refer a complaint to another agency for investigation. The complaint must be filed within one year of the alleged act.

If the Commission determines there is "reasonable cause" to believe a discriminatory practice has occurred, the complainant may either bring a civil action in court against the person named in the complaint, or request an administrative hearing. Fla. Stat. Ann. §§ 760.06 & 760.11 (West's 2009).
委員会が、差別的な行為が生じたことを信じるのに「合理的な理由」が存在することを決定した場合、原告は、苦情の中で名前を挙げた人に対して民事訴訟を提起するか、あるいは、行政上の聴聞を要求することができる。Fla. Stat. Ann. §§ 760.06 & 760.11 (West's 2009).

If there is a pattern or practice of discrimination, or discrimination that raises "an issue of great public interest," the state Attorney General may file a complaint in circuit court for damages, injunctive relief and/or civil penalties (up to $10,000 per violation) and other appropriate relief. Fla. Stat. Ann. § 760.021.
差別の形態あるいは行為、又は「重大な公益上の問題」が生ずる差別が存在する場合、州の法務官は、損害賠償、差し止め命令及び/又は民事制裁(違反ごとに1万ドルまで)及び他の適切な救済を求めて、巡回裁判所に苦情を申し立てることができる。Fla. Stat. Ann. § 760.021.

Private Lawsuits

Individuals must first "exhaust" the available administrative remedies by filing with the Commission, and get a determination of reasonable cause before filing a case in court. They can also appeal to a final Commission ruling to a court. Fla. Stat. Ann. §760.11. The court action can be filed for compensatory and punitive damages (up to $100,000) and/or injunctive relief (an order to stop discriminating or an affirmative order). Cases for actual or punitive damages may be heard by a jury.
個人は、まず委員会に提起することによって他の利用可能な行政上の救済を「使い果た」さなければならず、裁判所に訴訟を提起する前に、合理的な理由があるという決定を得なければならない。個人はまた、委員会の最終的な判断を裁判所に訴えることができる。Fla. Stat. Ann. §760.11.補償や懲罰的損害賠償($100000まで)及び/又は差し止め命令による救済(差別の停止命令あるいは積極的命令)を求めて訴訟を提起することができる。実際の又は懲罰的損害賠償を求める事案は、陪審によって審理されうる。

Note: A federal court of appeals has ruled that the right of an individual to file a lawsuit is limited to the definition of "lodging, food and entertainment" public accommodations enumerated in the Civil Rights Act above (§ 760.02), and not the broader definition under the service animal statute. Sheely v. MRI Radiology Network, 505 F.3d 1173, 1204-05 (11th Cir. 2007): individual with a service dog barred from portions of a medical facility has no private right of action under Florida Civil Rights Act.
注釈:連邦控訴裁判所は、個人が訴訟を提起する権利は、サービスアニマル法に基づくより広い定義にではなく、前述の公民権法(§760.02)に列挙された「宿泊、食事や娯楽」の公共施設の定義に限定される、と判示した。Sheely v. MRI Radiology Network, 505 F.3d 1173, 1204-05 (11th Cir. 2007):医療施設の一部に入ることを禁じられた介助犬を連れた個人は、フロリダ公民権法に基づく私訴権をもたない。

Criminal Penalties

Any person, firm or corporation "who denies or interferes with admittance to, or enjoyment of, a public accommodation, or otherwise interferes with the rights of an individual with a disability" commits a second degree misdemeanor, punishable by a maximum fine of $500 or imprisonment up to 60 days. Fla. Stat. Ann. § 413.08(4).
「公共施設への入場や享受を拒否あるいは妨げ、又は、別な方法で障害者の権利を妨げた」個人、企業あるいは法人は、第2級の軽罪を犯しており、$500以下の罰金又は60日以下の自由刑で処罰される。Fla. Stat. Ann. § 413.08(4).


State Agency Enforcement

The Safety Fire Commissioner, Board of Regents, local building code officials and local fire departments have joint authority to enforce the access and building code requirements by issuing warnings and, if necessary, prosecuting cases in superior court. Off. Code Ga. Ann. § 30-3-7.
安全消防委員、大学協会理事会、地域の建築基準法にかかわる職員及び地域の消防署は、警告を発し、必要であれば、上級裁判所に訴訟を提起することによって、アクセス及び建築基準法の要件を守らせる共同の権限を有している。Off. Code Ga. Ann. § 30-3-7.

Private Lawsuits

A federal court of appeals has held that there is no private right to sue for failure to provide full and equal public accommodations or access to public facilities under Georgia state law. Smith v. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., 167 F.3d 286, 294-95 (6th Cir. 1999): although there is no private right of action, individual may sue entity for negligence and failure to implement ADA-mandated requirements. However, a federal district court later ruled that an innkeeper has a legal duty under Georgia law to receive a blind guest who uses a service dog and not to do so is a denial of an accommodation. Amick v. BM & KM, Inc., 275 F.Supp.2d 1378, 1383 (N.D. Ga. 2003).
連邦控訴裁判所は、ジョージア州法に基づく完全かつ平等な公共施設の提供あるいは公的施設へのアクセスを履行しないことに関して訴える私訴権は存在しないと判示した。Smith v. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., 167 F.3d 286, 294-95 (6th Cir. 1999):私訴権が存在しないにもかかわらず、個人は、過失及びADAが命じる要件の不履行に関して施設を訴えることができる。しかしながら、連邦地方裁判所はその後、旅館営業者は、介助犬を使用する視覚障害者の宿泊者を受け入れるジョージア州法に基づく法的義務があり、それをしないことは配慮の拒絶である、と判示した。Amick v. BM & KM, Inc., 275 F.Supp.2d 1378, 1383 (N.D. Ga. 2003).

Criminal Penalties

Any person, firm or corporation who denies or interferes with access to public facilities or buildings by persons who are blind, deaf or have visual or physical disabilities, or otherwise interferes with the rights granted under these statues, is guilty of a (high and aggravated) misdemeanor subject to a maximum fine of $2000 and/or up to 30 days in jail. Off. Code Ga. Ann. § 30-4-4 (2011).
公的施設あるいは建物への視覚障害者、聴覚障害者あるいは身体的障害者によるアクセスを拒否あるいは妨げ、又は、他の方法でその州の法律に基づいて付与された権利を妨げた個人、企業あるいは法人は、$2000以下の罰金及び/又は30日以下の自由刑を科される(上級及び加重された)軽罪を犯している。Off. Code Ga. Ann. § 30-4-4 (2011).


State Agency Enforcement

The Kentucky Commission on Human Rights was established to “encourage fair treatment for, to foster mutual understanding and respect among and to discourage discrimination against any racial or ethnic group or its members.”68Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 344.170.
ケンタッキー州人権委員会は、「あらゆる人種や民族集団又はそれらのメンバーに対する公平な取扱いを奨励し、相互理解及び相互尊重を促進し、差別を妨げるために」設立された。Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 344.170.

Although its mission under the statute is limited to racial and ethnic discrimination, the Commission appears to accept complaints filed on other discriminatory grounds, such as disability.

The Commission may initiate complaints or receive sworn written complaints of unlawful discriminatory practices filed by individuals, Commission members, or the Attorney General. Commission staff have the power to investigate, reach a conciliation agreement between the parties, or to conduct hearings. They have the power to subpoena witnesses, to examine witnesses under oath in person or by deposition or compel answers to written questions, and they may subpoena documents.

The Commission can order temporary or permanent injunctive relief (to stop a practice or order admission or entry) and, if necessary, it can file a complaint in the state circuit court seeking injunctive relief or enforcement of an order or agreement. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 344.190 - 344.220.

If the Commission determines that the respondent has engaged in an unlawful practice, it shall issue a final order requiring the respondent to “cease and desist” from the unlawful practice and to take the necessary affirmative steps. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. §344.230(3). These include:
委員会が、被告が不法行為に関与していると決定した場合、委員会は、不法行為を「停止及び排除」すること及び、必要な積極的措置をとることを、被告に要求する終局命令を発することとする。Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. §344.230(3).これは、以下のことを含んでいる:

  • Admitting individuals to a place of public accommodation.
  • 個人が公共施設に入ることを許可すること。
  • Extending to all individuals the full and equal enjoyment of the advantages, facilities, privileges, and services of the respondent.
  • 利益、施設、特権及び被告のサービスの完全かつ平等な享受をすべての個人に拡張すること。
  • Reporting on its manner of compliance.
  • 命令を遵守する方法を報告すること。
  • Posting notices in conspicuous places in the respondent's place of business in a form determined by the Commission.
  • 被告の職場の目立つ場所に、委員会によって決定された形式で通知を掲示すること。
  • Paying damages to the complainant, including compensation for humiliation and embarrassment, and for costs actually incurred by the complainant as a direct result of an unlawful practice.
  • 屈辱及び当惑に対する補償、及び、不法行為の直接的な結果として原告に発生した実際の費用に対する補償を含んだ損害賠償を原告に支払うこと。

The Commission may also publish the names of persons who have been determined to have engaged in an unlawful practice. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. §344.230(4)
委員会はまた、不法行為に関与したという決定を受けた人の名前を公表することができる。Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. §344.230(4)

Private Lawsuits

A person who claims a violation of the Civil Rights Act may sue in circuit court to stop further violations, and to recover "actual" damages, the costs of the lawsuit and reasonable attorneys' fees, and "any other remedies" contained in the statute.69Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 344.450 (West's 2010). It is an "unlawful practice" to deny individuals with a disability full and equal enjoyment of a place of public accommodation and they are also protected against "any direct or indirect act or practice of exclusion, distinction, restriction, segregation, limitation, refusal, denial, or any other act or practice of differentiation or preference in the treatment" based on their disability.
公民権法に違反していることを主張する個人は、巡回裁判所に、今後の違反を停止することや、「実際の」損害、訴訟費用及び合理的な弁護士費用を支払うこと、及び、当該法律に含まれている「他の救済」を求めて訴えることができる。Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 344.450 (West's 2010).障害者が公共施設を完全かつ平等に享受することを拒否することは、「不法行為」であり、障害者はまた、障害を理由とした「排除、差別、制約、人種差別、制限、拒絶、拒否、の直接又は間接的活動あるいは行為、又は、そのほかの取扱いにおける区別あるいは優遇の活動あるいは行為」から保護されている。
Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 344.120&344.010(5).

Actual damages may be awarded for humiliation, personal indignity, mental or emotional injury or other intangible injuries. Mitchell v. Seaboard System R.R., 883 F.2d 451, 454 (6th Cir. 1989). Punitive damages, however, are not available. Steinhoff v. Upriver Restaurant Jt. Venture, 117 F.Supp. 598, 606 (E.D. Ky. 2000); Brooks v. Lexington-Fayette Urban Co. Housing Auth., 132 S.W. 3d 790, 808 (2004). There is no requirement to file a complaint with the Commission on Human Rights before going to court.
実際の損害賠償は、屈辱、個人的な精神的苦痛、精神的あるいは肉体的侵害又はそれ以外の無形的侵害に対して認定される。Mitchell v. Seaboard System R.R., 883 F.2d 451, 454 (6th Cir. 1989).しかしながら、懲罰的損害賠償は利用することができない。Steinhoff v. Upriver Restaurant Jt. Venture, 117 F.Supp. 598, 606 (E.D. Ky. 2000); Brooks v. Lexington-Fayette Urban Co. Housing Auth., 132 S.W. 3d 790, 808 (2004).裁判所に訴える前に人権委員会に苦情を申し立てる要件は存在しない。

Criminal Penalties

A person who is convicted for denying entry, or full and equal use, to dog owners/users under the assistance dog statute must pay a fine ranging from $250 to $1000, or serve from 10 to 30 days in jail, or both. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 258.991.
補助犬法に基づく犬の所有者/使用者に対して、入場あるいは完全かつ平等に使用することを拒否したことについて有罪の判決を受けた個人は、$250から$1000の範囲の罰金の支払い、又は、10日以上30日以下の自由刑、あるいはその両方を科される。Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 258.991.


Private Lawsuits

There are no civil penalties or private rights of action under the Mississippi public accommodations statutes.

Criminal Penalties

Any person, firm or corporation who interferes with (or denies) access to persons who are blind, "visually handicapped," deaf or physically disabled to public facilities or places or public accommodations, or otherwise interferes with their rights under the law, is subject to a fine of $100 or 60-day jail time or both. Ms. Code Ann. § 43-6-11 (West's 2009).
「視覚障害者」、聴覚障害者あるいは身体的障害者が公的施設あるいは公共施設にアクセスすることを妨げた(あるいは拒否した)、又は、法に基づく彼らの権利を妨げた個人、企業あるいは法人は、$100の罰金又は60日の自由刑あるいはその両方を科される。Ms. Code Ann. § 43-6-11 (West's 2009).

North Carolina

Private Lawsuits

A person with a disability who requests a reasonable accommodation must inform the place of public accommodation of their disabling condition and submit any necessary medical documentation. Once an accommodation has been requested (or if a potential accommodation is obvious), the place of public accommodation shall discuss possible and feasible options with the qualifying person who requests it, investigate, and make the accommodation if reasonable. N.C. General Stat. §168A-4 (2010).
合理的配慮を要求した障害者は、公共施設に障害の状況を通知しなければならず、また、必要な医療記録を提出しなければならない。配慮が要求されたならば(あるいは、可能な配慮が明らかであれば)、公共施設は、配慮を要求した適格な人とともに、可能で実行できる選択肢を議論し、調査し、また、合理的であるならば配慮することとする。N.C. General Stat. §168A-4 (2010).

A person with a disability may bring a civil action in state court to enforce rights against any person alleged to have committed discriminatory practices under the Persons with Disabilities Protection Act concerning full and equal enjoyment of public accommodations, services or transportation. This would involve filing a lawsuit--within two years of the date of the discriminatory practice or conduct. Trial is in front of a judge, not a jury. Relief is limited to declaratory (declaration of rights and responsibilities of the parties) and injunctive (order to stop a practice or take affirmative steps). Reasonable attorneys' fees may also be awarded by the court. N.C. General Stat. §§ 168A-11 & 168A-1270
障害者は、公共施設、サービスあるいは交通機関の完全かつ平等な享受に関して障害者保護法に基づき、差別的行為に関与している人に対して権利を主張して州裁判所に民事訴訟を起こすことができる。これは、差別的行為あるいは行為の日から2年以内に--訴訟を提起することを含んでいる。審理は、陪審員ではなく裁判官の面前で行われる。救済は、宣言的判決(当事者の権利及び義務の存否の確認)と、差し止め命令(行為を停止する命令あるいは積極的措置をとる命令)に限定される。合理的な弁護士費用も、裁判所によって認定される。N.C. General Stat. §§ 168A-11 & 168A-12

Criminal Penalties

It is a "Class 3" misdemeanor71to deprive a person with a disability (or a person training a service animal) of any rights or privileges granted under the statute with respect to being accompanied by animals or to charge any fee. It is also a Class 3 misdemeanor to disguise an animal as a service animal or animal in training. N.C. General Stat. §168-4.5.

South Carolina

Private Lawsuits

"Handicapped persons" who are discriminated against without "reasonable justification," with respect to public accommodations or services, can sue in the court of common pleas for injunctive relief ("fix it" order or order to take affirmative steps) or civil damages (maximum $5000 in actual damages). They may also request attorneys' fees and costs. Reasonable justification is determined "in light of" safety, efficiency and cost, among other factors. S.C. Code Laws, §§ 43-33-540 & 43-33-570 (2010).
公共施設あるいはサービスに関して「合理的な正当理由」がないにもかかわらず差別された「障害者」は、民事訴訟裁判所に差し止め命令(「修正」命令又は積極的措置をとる命令)あるいは民事上の損害賠償(実際の損害のうち最大$5000)を求めて訴訟を提起することができる。障害者は、弁護士費用及び訴訟費用を要求することもできる。合理的な正当理由は、安全、効率及び費用その他の要因を「考慮して」決定される。S.C. Code Laws, §§ 43-33-540 & 43-33-570 (2010).

Any driver who fails to take necessary precautions when approaching a blind pedestrian carrying a predominantly white or metallic cane or a pedestrian using an assistance dog is liable in damages for any injury caused the pedestrian. S.C. Code Laws, § 43-33-30.
大部分は白あるいは金属の杖を携えて歩いている視覚障害者又は補助犬を使っている歩行者に近づく際に必要な予防策を取ることをしなかった運転手は、歩行者に生じた侵害に対する損害賠償を支払う法的責任がある。S.C. Code Laws, § 43-33-30.

Criminal Penalties

A person who denies or interferes with admission to, or enjoyment of, full and free use of public facilities by "[t]he blind, the visually handicapped, and the otherwise physically disabled" is guilty of a misdemeanor. A person who interferes with the rights of "a totally or partially blind or disabled person" to full and equal accommodations and transportation (including the right to be accompanied by an assistance dog) is also guilty of a misdemeanor. If convicted, the violator must be fined an amount in the judge's discretion or imprisoned for up to 3 years, or both. S.C. Code Laws, § 43-33-40.
「視覚障害者及びそれ以外の身体的障害者」による、公的施設への入場やそれを享受すること、完全かつ無料で使用することを拒否あるいは妨げた個人は、軽罪を犯している。「完全なあるいは部分的な視覚障害者あるいは障害者」が宿泊施設及び交通機関を完全かつ平等に利用する権利(補助犬に付き添われる権利も含む)を妨げた人も、軽罪を犯している。有罪判決が下された場合、違反者は、裁判所の裁量によって定められた罰金を支払うか、又は3年以下の自由刑あるいはその両方を科されなければならない。S.C. Code Laws, § 43-33-40.


The Tennessee public accommodation nondiscrimination law does not appear to protect people with disabilities.

Criminal Penalties

Violations of the dog guide statute are subject to a Class C misdemeanor ($50 maximum fine or up to 30 days imprisonment or both) for refusal of entry to (or use of) a public accommodation or transportation by a "blind, physically disabled or deaf or hard-of-hearing person" accompanied by a dog guide. Tenn. Code Ann. § 62-7-112(b).

68 Local human rights commissions may also be established by a city, county or a combination of local entities. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 344.310.
地域の人権委員会も、町、郡あるいは地域組織の結合によって設立される場合がある。Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 344.310.
69 However, suits may not be brought under the Kentucky Civil Rights Act against the State itself. Mosier v. Kentucky, 640 F.Supp. 875, 879 (E.D. Ky. 2009).
しかしながら、訴訟はケンタッキー公民権法に基づいて、州自身に対して提起されない。Mosier v. Kentucky, 640 F.Supp. 875, 879 (E.D. Ky. 2009).
70 Persons who have already filed a federal judicial or administrative complaint under the ADA or Section 504 about the same discriminatory practice may not then file suit under the Persons with Disabilities Protection Act. N.C. General Stat. §168A-11(c); Bowling v. Margaret R. Pardee Memorial Hosp., 635 S.E. 2d 624 (2006).
同一の差別的実践に関してADAあるいはリハビリテーション法504条に基づいて、既に連邦裁判所に訴訟を提起しあるいは行政上の苦情を申し立てた人は、その後、障害者保護法に基づいて訴訟を提起することはできない。N.C. General Stat. §168A-11(c); Bowling v. Margaret R. Pardee Memorial Hosp., 635 S.E. 2d 624 (2006).
71 Currently, the maximum fine for a Class 3 misdemeanor is $200 and imprisonment would range from 1-20 days, dependent on prior convictions. N.C. General Stat. §15A-1340.23.
一般的に、第3級の軽罪に対する罰金は$200以下であり、自由刑は1日以上20日以下の範囲であり、前科に左右される。N.C. General Stat. §15A-1340.23.