1 国際調査

参考資料8-2 事前質問事項への回答(抜粋)

A. Purpose and general obligations (arts. 1-4)

 Issue 1: Please inform the Committee when the State party envisages to adopt and to fully implement the draft bill aimed at replacing the Disabled Persons Welfare Act (1982) and at eliminating derogatory terms such as “dull, crippled, lame, handicapped with one leg broken, handicapped with one hand broken or a feeble minded” which continue to be used in the existing definition of disability. Please also explain if the draft bill intends to modify the definition of disability in line with the human rights model of disability enshrined in the convention (para. 18).

 3. Nepal has enacted the Disability Rights Act, 2017 (DRA) repealing the Disabled Persons Welfare Act, 1982 (DPWA). The DRA defines the disability in Annex related to Section 3 in line with the human rights model enshrined in the CRPD. The DRA recognizes diversity within disability, eliminates the derogatory words, and criminalizes the use of such words towards persons with disabilities. It may be recalled that the GoN had already adopted Directives in 2006 that amended the then existing definition of disability of DPWA.
 3. ネパールは、1982年の障害者保護福祉法(DPWA)を廃止して、2017年に障害者権利法(DRA)を制定した。DRAは、障害者権利条約に盛り込まれた人権モデルに沿って、第3項に関連する附録の障害について定義している。DRAは、障害の多様性を認識し、侮辱的な言葉を排除し、障害者に対するこのような言葉の使用を犯罪とする。これは、ネパール政府が既に、DPWAの既存の障害の定義を修正する2006年の指令を採択していたことを思い起こさせるかもしれない。

 Issue 2: Please specify which “domestic legislation” is subject to revision in the State party to ensure that it fully complies with the Convention (para. 17), and inform on the progress that has been made so far. Please explain the mechanisms and systems that have been put in place in order to address the challenges that the State party faces in enforcing legal provisions in favour of persons with disabilities (para. 31).

 4. The Constitution of Nepal promulgated in 2015 incorporates universal human rights in line with international human rights instruments. The Constitution aims at building a just, equitable, prosperous and inclusive society. The Constitution guarantees equality and non-discrimination and prohibits any form of discrimination, including those on the basis of disability. It ensures participatory democracy and inclusion of all sections of societies, including persons with disabilities. The Constitution protects the rights of persons with disabilities that include the right to education, right to participation in the State institutions based on the principle of inclusion, right to access to public services and benefits, and right to social security.
 4. 2015年に公布されたネパール憲法は、国際人権文書に沿った普遍的な人権を組み入れている。憲法は、公正で公平で豊かで包容的な社会を構築することを目指している。憲法は平等と無差別を保障し、障害に基づく差別を含むすべての形態の差別を禁止している。憲法は、参加型民主主義と、障害者を含めた社会のすべてのグループの包容を保障する。憲法は、教育の権利、包容の原則に基づいて国の機関に参加する権利、公共サービスと福祉手当へのアクセス権、社会保障の権利を含む障害者の権利を保護する。

 5. The regulation relating to the rights of persons with disabilities, legislation relating to the rights of the child, legislation relating to the elimination of gender based violence are at different stages of revision. The GoN is also revising National Policy and Plan of Action on Disability (NPPAD), 2006 that will further facilitate implementation of CRPD and DRA.

 Issue 3: With regard to the issuing of disability identity cards (para 21), please explain how the four different categories of disabilities are assessed and how they comply with the human rights model of disability enshrined in the convention.

 6. The GoN issues four types of color-coded disability identity (ID) cards to persons with disabilities on the basis of severity of disability i.e. (1) Red-colored card for Profound, (2) Blue-colored card for Severe, (3) Yellow-colored card for Moderate, and (4) White-colored card for Mild level of disability. Disability ID Card Distribution Directives, 2008 has included a list of documents and procedures to apply and obtain disability ID card.
 6. 障害の重症度に基づいて、(1)最重度は赤い色のカード、(2)重度は青い色のカード、(3)中度のレベルは黄色のカード、(4)軽度の障害には白い色のカードといったように4つの色別の身分証明書を発行している。2008年の障害身分証明書配布指令は、障害者の身分証明書を申請して入手するための文書と手続の一覧表が含まれている。

 7. At the district level, an ID Card Recommendation Committee that consists of Assistant Chief District Officer, Medical Doctor, Women Development Officer and a representative from Disabled People Organizations (DPOs) reviews application and recommends for the issuance of ID card. The Directives provide for a Monitoring Committee that ensures that each eligible person gets an ID card, while preventing the misuse by ineligibles. A Grievance Handling Committee headed by the Chief District Officer (CDO) reviews appeals and grievances related to the distribution of ID cards. Fraudulent acquisition of ID card is punishable under the DRA.
 7. 地区レベルでは、地区長官補佐、医師、女性開発担当者、障害者団体(DPOs)の代表からなる身分証明書勧告委員会が申込書を審査し、身分証明書の発行を勧告する。この指令は、資格のない者による身分証明書の誤用を防止しながら、各適格者が身分証明書を取得することを保証する監視委員会を規定している。地区長官(CDO)が率いる苦情処理委員会は、身分証明書の配布に関わる控訴や抗議を審査する。身分証明書の不正取得は、DRAの下で罰せられる。

 8. While the above arrangements comply with the provisions of the Convention, Nepal’s practices of identifying and distributing the ID card are guided by the human rights principles such as respect for difference and acceptance of persons with disabilities as part of human diversity; recognition of persons with disabilities as a right holder; and assurance of their participation and inclusion.

 Issue 4: Please inform the Committee of the measures taken to ensure that the denial of reasonable accommodation is acknowledged as a form of discrimination. Please provide information on the legal avenues and remedies that are available to persons with disabilities to challenge discriminatory laws and practices. Please indicate the percentage of successful claims and provide information on the nature of such remedies. Please provide information on the percentage of the overall number of human rights cases adjudicated by national courts that involve violations of the rights guaranteed under the Convention.

 9. Section 8 (4) of the DRA categorically acknowledges the denial of reasonable accommodation as a form of discrimination. The GoN has adopted accessibility guidelines and standards to implement the reasonable accommodation provision. Sections 51 and 52 of DRA provide for the recourse of legal remedies for its enforcement. In a broader framework, the Constitution in Article 46 provides constitutional remedies for the enforcement of fundamental rights including challenging discriminatory laws and practices.
 9. DRAの第8節(4)は、差別の一形態としての合理的配慮の否定を明示的に認めている。ネパール政府は、合理的配慮提供を実施するためのアクセシビリティ指針と基準を採用している。DRAの第51章、第52章は、その実施に関する法的救済を提供している。より広い枠組みにおいて、憲法第46条は、差別的な法律や慣行への挑戦を含む基本的権利の実施のための憲法上の救済を提供している。

 10. The Supreme Court of Nepal (SC) has passed judgments on cases upholding the spirit of ‘reasonable accommodation’. Some of the successful cases are:
 (a)Prakash Mani Sharma Vs. Government of Nepal. In this case, the Supreme Court issued mandamus against the GoN on May 8, 2007 to ensure accessibility in public infrastructure.

 10. ネパール最高裁判所(SC)は、「合理的配慮」の精神を支える事例について判決を下した。成功した事例の幾つかは以下の通りである。
 (a)Prakash Mani Sharma対ネパール政府。この事例では、最高裁判所は、公共インフラストラクチャーにおけるアクセシビリティを保障するために、2007年5月8日にネパール政府に対して職務執行令状を発令した。

 Issue: Protection of Social Justice for the Persons with Disabilities - Ensuring Accessibility in Public Infrastructures.

 (b) Raghab Bir Joshi and Kalpana Shakya Vs. Government of Nepal. In this case, the Supreme Court issued a Directive Order for the amendment and improvement in the Motor Vehicles and Transport Management Act, 1993 (Article 47(e)) and preparation of action plan for ensuring this right.
 (b) Raghab Bir Joshi 及びKalpana Shakya対ネパール政府。この事例では、最高裁判所は、1993年自動車交通運輸管理法(第47条 (e))の改正及び改善、この権利を保障するための行動計画の作成に関する指令を発令した。

 Issue: Issuing driving license to Persons with Deafness and Hard of Hearing Disability.

 (c) Prakash Mani Sharma on behalf of Pro Public Vs. Government of Nepal. In this case, the Supreme Court issued an order of mandamus on April 16, 2008 against the Ministry of Education to ensure/fulfill the claim.
 (c) Pro Public6の代わりにPrakash Mani Sharma対ネパール政府。この事例では、最高裁判所は、2008年4月16日に教育省に対し、要望を確実にするための職務執行令状を発令した。

 Issue: Sign language facilities for people with Deafness and Hard of Hearing disability and establishment of inclusive schools and higher educational institutions across the country.

 Issue 5: Please inform the Committee on the measures that the State party has taken to ensure the full and equal participation of persons with disabilities, in particular the most underrepresented groups of persons with disabilities, in decision making processes, including in legislative processes.

 11. Nepal has adopted a number of measures to ensure the full and equal participation of persons with disabilities in all walks of life. The Constitution of Nepal in Article 84 (3) has made it mandatory for the political parties, while fielding their candidates for the election of the House of Representatives (Lower House of the Parliament), to include persons with disabilities. Article 86 (2) (a) provides for the representation of persons with disabilities from each State in the National Assembly (Upper House of the Parliament). Reiterating the constitutional provisions, the Supreme Court of Nepal has ordered the GoN and the Election Commission to include persons with disabilities as candidates for elections to be held under proportional representation (Birendra Pokharel vs. GoN, 2017).
 11. ネパールは、あらゆる職業及び社会的地位にある障害者の完全かつ平等な参加を保証するための多くの措置を採択している。ネパール憲法の第84条(3)では、衆議院(議会の下院)の選挙候補者を擁護しながら、障害者を政党へ組み入れることを義務付けている。第86条(2)(a)では、国会(議会上院)の各州からの障害者の代表ついて規定している。憲法規定を繰り返して伝えながら、ネパール最高裁判所は、ネパール政府と選挙管理委員会に、比例代表の下で開催される選挙の候補者として障害者を含めるよう命じた。(Birendra Pokharel対ネパール政府、2017年)

 12.Further, the DRA ensures the right to political participation of the persons with disabilities, right to file candidacy and right to vote on an equal footing with others (Section 11). Similarly, the DRA also ensures participation of organizations representing different categories of persons with disabilities in the national level Steering Committee and local level Coordination Committee to be formed in each Village Body and Municipalities, which are entrusted with the responsibility of overall coordination for the protection of rights and interest of persons with disabilities (Sections 38 and 42). The GoN has been supporting programmes including the Community-Based Rehabilitation programme (CBR) that also support to promote and ensure participation of persons with disabilities in decision-making process at all levels.
 12. さらに、DRAは障害者の政治参加権、立候補の権利、また他者と平等な立場で投票する権利を保障する(第11条)。同様に、DRAは、異なる種別の障害を代表する団体が、障害者の権利と利益保護のために全体的な調整の責任を委任される国家レベルの運営委員会及び、各村落及び自治体に形成される地方レベルの調整委員会に参加することを保証する(第38章及び第42章)。ネパール政府は、障害者にあらゆるレベルの意思決定過程への参加を促進し、保証することを支援する地域社会に基づくリハビリテーションプログラム(CBR)を含むプログラムを支援してきた。

B. Specific Rights (arts. 5-30)

Equality and non-discrimination (art. 5)

 Issue 6: Please inform the Committee of the measures taken to establish a comprehensive anti-discrimination legislation framework, which includes disability as a prohibited ground for discrimination, and an independent anti-discrimination monitoring body. Please inform the Committee of the measures that have been adopted to address multiple and intersectional discrimination faced by the persons with disabilities, including on the basis of caste, ethnicity and indigenous identity.

 13. The Constitution has enshrined the right to equality and non-discrimination as fundamental rights of all citizens. No discrimination may be made in the application of general laws on the grounds of, inter alia, physical conditions, condition of health, disability or similar other grounds (Article 18 (2)). It also provides the persons with disabilities right to social justice to participate in the State bodies on the basis of inclusive principle (Article 42). The DRA elaborates the anti-discrimination provision by criminalizing any discrimination against persons with disabilities (Section 8).
 13. 憲法は、すべての市民の基本的権利としての平等と無差別の権利を法制化している。とりわけ、身体状態、健康状態、障害や同様のその他の理由に基づいて、一般法の適用における差別を行うことはできない(第18条(2))。また、包容の原則に基づいて、締約国の機関に参加する社会的正義に対する権利を障害者に提供する(第42条)。DRAは、障害者に対するいかなる差別でも刑法により禁止することにより差別禁止規定を作り上げている(第8条)。

 14. Nepal has taken various measures to address multiple and intersectional discrimination. National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) has been established as an independent national human rights institution in compliance with the Paris Principles on NHRI. Similarly, National Women Commission (NWC), National Dalit Commission (NDC) and National Muslim Commission (NMC) have been established and are actively and independently working for the participation, empowerment and development of the people belonging to those groups. These commissions also protect and promote the rights and address the issues of intersectional discrimination within their respective groups. In addition, independent constitutional commissions such as National Inclusion Commission, Indigenous Nationalities Commission, and Madhesi Commission have been created with the mandate, inter alia, to address the issues of multiple and intersectional discrimination.
 14. ネパールは、複合的、横断的差別に対処するための様々な措置を講じている。国家人権委員会(NHRC)は、NHRIにおけるパリ原則に準拠した独立した国家人権機関として設立された。同様に、国家女性委員会(NWC)、国家ダリット委員会(NDC)、国家ムスリム委員会(NMC)が設立され、これらのグループに属する者の参加、エンパワメント、開発が積極的に独立して行われた。これらの委員会は、権利を保護及び促進し、それぞれのグループ内での横断的な差別の問題に取り組む。さらに、国家包容委員会、先住民民族委員会、マデシ委員会などの独立した憲法委員会は、とりわけ、複合的、横断的差別の問題を解決するために、権限をもって作成されている。

Women with Disabilities (art. 6)

 Issue 7: Please describe the impact of the measures taken under the Three-year interim plan (2010-2013) to ensure the full inclusion of women with disabilities in public policies and programmes, especially those designed to combat physical and sexual violence, abuse and exploitation of women and girls with disabilities. Please inform if a new action plan has been adopted to combat violence against women with disabilities following the expiry of the interim plan.

 15. The National Strategy and Action Plan on Gender Empowerment and elimination of Gender Based Violence has been implemented as an umbrella policy. As envisioned by the action plan, 32 sectorial Acts have been amended to eliminate Gender Based Violence (GBV). The Domestic Violence (Offence and Punishment) (DV) Act, 2009 was amended in 2015, making some grave cases of domestic violence as State cases. Sexual Harassment at Workplace (Control) Act, 2014, National Civil Code 2017, National Criminal Code 2017 have been enacted providing measures to prevent physical and sexual violence, abuse and exploitation.

 16. The GoN has established a Gender Empowerment and Coordination Unit at the Office of the Prime Minister and Council of Ministers (OPMCM) at the central level and District Coordination Committees at the district levels. In addition, the GoN has established a Gender Based Violence Alleviation Fund in all districts, hospital based one stop crisis management centres (OCMC) and service centres in 36 districts and rehabilitation centres in 10 districts in order to take preventive action and to provide urgent services and support to the victims of GBV including people living with disabilities.
 16. ネパール政府は、中枢レベルの首相諮問会議室(OPMCM)と地区レベルの地区調整委員会に、ジェンダーエンパワメントと調整ユニットを設置した。さらにネパール政府は、予防的行動を行い、障害者を含むジェンダーに基づく暴力(GBV)の犠牲者への緊急サービスや支援を提供するために、すべての地区にジェンダーに基づく暴力緩和基金を設立し、36地区にワン・ストップの危機管理センター(OCMC)及びサービスセンターを設立し、10地区にリハビリテーションセンターを設立した。

 17. Local authorities, the Nepal Police, the National Women Commission and the Courts have been implementing the DV Act and its Regulation in receiving complaints, investigation, prosecution and ensuring punishment against perpetrators. For handling the cases of Violence Against Women and Girls (VAWG) at the local level, 246 Women and Children Service Centers (WCSCs) have been established in the Nepal Police in all districts with separate women police officers responsible for handling GBV cases. The GON has been mobilizing GBV Alleviation Fund and Emergency Child Rescue Fund in all districts to provide immediate funds for rescue, and for providing medical support, legal aid, counseling and rehabilitation for survivors of GBV.
 17. 地方自治体、ネパール警察、国家女性委員会及び裁判所は、苦情申立て、捜査、訴追を受け、加害者に対する処罰を請け合う際に、DV法とその規制を実施している。地方のレベルで、女性と女児に対する暴力(VAWG)の事例を扱うために、246の女性と児童のサービスセンター(WCSC)がすべての地区のネパール警察に設置され、別々の女性警察官がGBVの事件の処理を担当している。ネパール政府は、救済と、GBVから生還した者への医療支援、法的扶助、カウンセリング、リハビリを行うための緊急資金を提供するために、すべての地区でGBV緩和基金と緊急児童救済基金を結集している。

 18. The continuous hearing provision of the District Court Rules, 1996 has been effectively implemented since 2013 to ensure speedy justice in cases of women victims and survivors of violence. Guidelines on in-camera hearing and maintaining confidentiality of the victims of violence has been formulated and the justice sector actors have been trained on effective implementation of such Guidelines.

 19. The current 14th Plan has been further consolidating the achievements made by the then three-year plan.
 19. 現在の第14次計画は、3年計画の成果をさらに強化している。

 Issue 8: Please provide information on the measures taken to support women and girls with disabilities, especially in the fields of education, employment and other areas of public life, and, in particular, to address intersectional discrimination, especially with reference to girls and women with intellectual or psychosocial disabilities and those from the Dalit, Madhesi, Muslim and other ethnic communities.
 事前質問事項8:特に教育、雇用及び他の公的生活の分野において、障害のある女性や女児を支援するための措置について情報を提供してください。また特に、知的及び心理的障害のある女児や女性や、ダリット、マデシ 、ムスリムやその他の民族コミュニティーの女児や女性に関して、共通して見受けられる差別を指摘するための措置について情報を提供してください。

 20. A long-term strategic programme under the School Sector Development Plan, 2016-2023 (SSDP) is being implemented to achieve the goals and objectives of ensuring quality education for all. Earlier to this, the School Sector Reform Plan, 2009-2015 (SSRP) had introduced new reforms characterized by strategic intervention such as the restructuring of school education, improvement in the quality of education, and institutionalization of performance accountability.
 20. 2016年から2023年までの学校部門開発計画(SSDP)に基づく長期戦略プログラムは、すべての人に質の高い教育を保証する目的と目標を達成するために実施されている。これに先立ち、学校部門改革計画(2009年~2015年)(SSRP)は、学校教育の再編、教育の質の向上、成果責任の制度化などの戦略的介入を特徴とする新しい改革を導入した。

 Under the SSDP phase, policies related to the inclusive education for persons with disabilities, and higher education have been announced. Department of Education (DoE) remains effortful to increase enrollment of disabled children in school by providing different types of scholarships and incentives such as residential scholarship; device and support scholarship; transportation scholarship; and motivational scholarship.

 The GoN provides special scholarship and incentives to the children from Dalit and other marginalized communities. Similarly, University Grant Commission provides scholarship targeting to students with disabilities. In regard to the employment, the GoN has introduced reservations in public services including public corporation and teachers service and also encouraged private sector to hire persons with disabilities with the provision of tax exemption incentives (detail in issue 27 below).

Accessibility (art. 9)

 Issue 12: Please provide information on the impact of the measures adopted to implement the thirteenth plan (2013-2016) to enhance accessibility for persons with disabilities and of the measures adopted to ensure that public and private sector providers offering facilities and services to the public take into account all aspects of accessibility. Specifically, please inform the Committee of the progress achieved in implementing the National Building Code, which was approved in 2005, to ensure accessibility for persons with disabilities (para. 91). Please indicate the extent to which persons with disabilities, through their representative organizations, have been involved in the monitoring and assessment of accessibility measures and plans.

 26. The MOWCSW adopted the Accessible Physical Structure and Communication Service Directives for People with Disabilities, 2013 (Accessibility Guidelines) in line with the 13th Plan. It follows the principle of reasonable accommodation and provides direction towards building public infrastructures accessible. Further, the Ministry of Urban Development has adopted ‘Architectural Design Requirements’ to implement the National Building Code.
 26. MOWCSWは、第13次計画に沿って、2013年に「障害者のための利用可能な物理構造及び通信サービス指令(アクセシビリティ指針)」を採択した。それは、合理的配慮の原則に従い、障害者が利用可能な公共インフラストラクチャーを構築するための方向性を示している。さらに、都市開発省は、国家建築基準を実施するために、「建築設計要件」を採用した。

 27. New public buildings are being constructed with accessibility features as guided by the National Building Code, Directives and accessibility guidelines. Model accessible public places are being developed in the Capital city. Public transportation services are increasingly introducing the accessibility features in the public buses such as Sajha Yatayat. Recent road construction in Kathmandu have paid attention to install tactile surfaces in the pedestrian lane to facilitate the access for blind and visually impaired people.
 27. 新しい公共建築物は、国家建築基準、指令、アクセシビリティ指針によって指導されたアクセシビリティ機能を組み込んで建設される。モデルとなる障害者が利用可能な公共の場所は、首都で開発されている。公共交通機関では、Sajha Yatayat7などの公共バスにアクセシビリティ機能が続々と導入されている。カトマンズの最近の道路建設では、盲人や視覚障害者のためのアクセスを容易にするために、歩道に触って分かる表面の舗装を導入するよう注意が払われている。

 28. The 14th periodic plan (2014-2017) has introduced programmes to further consolidate the efforts made in the past. The Plan aims at creating respectful and barrier free environment for persons with disabilities and thereby increasing access to services, entitlement and opportunity for livelihood development.
 28. 第14次定期計画(2014-2017年)では、過去の取組をさらに強化するためのプログラムが導入されている。この計画は、障害者を尊重した障壁のない環境を作り、それによってサービスへのアクセスや生計手段の開発のための権利と機会を増やすことを目指している。

 29. National Reconstruction Regulation, 2016 provides for construction of public, private and residential buildings which are accessible for persons with disabilities. National Reconstruction Authority monitors the compliance of the standards and guidelines while designing and constructing public buildings and physical infrastructure.
 29. 2016年の国家復興規則(National Reconstruction Regulation)は、障害者が利用可能な公的及び民間の居住用建物の建設について規定している。国家債権局は、公共の建物及び物理的インフラを設計及び建設する際に、基準及び指針の遵守状況を監視する。

 30. The MOWCSW provides district-level orientation to the government stakeholders related to accessible public infrastructures and also conducts accessibility audit in all the districts. The GoN has introduced mobile video call services to facilitate the communication for deaf and hard of hearing people.
 30. MOWCSWは、障害者が利用可能な公共インフラストラクチャーに関係する政府関係者に地区レベルのオリエンテーションを提供するとともに、すべての地区でアクセシビリティ監査を実施する。ネパール政府は、聴覚障害者や難聴者のためのコミュニケーションを促進するためのモバイル映像コールサービスを導入した。

 31. Accessibility guideline was prepared with the involvement of National Federation of Disability Nepal (NFDN) and DPOs. These organizations are also involved in implementation and monitoring of these guidelines. Additionally, the GoN also developed a web accessibility guideline in collaboration with NFDN.
 31. アクセシビリティ指針は、国家障害者連盟(NFDN)及びDPOの参加により作成された。これら組織は、これらの指針の実施及び監視にも関与している。さらに、ネパール政府はNFDNと協力して、ウェブアクセシビリティ指針を策定した。

Equal recognition before the law (art. 12)

 Issue 14: Please inform the Committee of the legal and other measures that have been adopted to ensure that supported decision-making schemes are in place for persons with disabilities and eradicate any substituted decision-making regimes.

 35. The GoN recognizes the importance of supported decision-making schemes for persons with disabilities in promoting well-being and human flourishing, independent living, and non-discrimination. The GoN is committed to ensure supported-decision making scheme by making legal measures for the enjoyment of fundamental rights guaranteed by the Constitution.

Living independently and being included in the community (art. 19)

 Issue 19: Please provide information on the impact of National Policy and Plan of Action on Disability, 2006 (NPPAD) in ensuring effective institutionalization of persons with disabilities. Please provide information, disaggregated by disability, sex and age, on the number of persons with disabilities who have been de-institutionalized. Please also inform on measures adopted to provide support services in the community to prevent re-institutionalization.

 41. As stated in issue 16, institutionalization of persons with disabilities is not in practice in Nepal and none of policies and plans support institutionalization. With the aim of providing counseling, treatment and training on activities of daily living, some short-term living arrangements have been made particularly to the people with psychosocial disability and other vulnerable groups within disability. Once they complete counseling and treatment, they will be re-integrated at their family/community.
 41. 事前質問事項16で述べたように、障害者の施設化は、ネパールでは実施されておらず、政策や制度のどれも施設化を支援していない。日常生活の活動に関するカウンセリング、治療、研修を提供する目的で、特に心理社会的障害者や、障害のあるその他の脆弱な人に対して、短期間の生活の手配がされている。彼らがカウンセリングと治療を完了すると、彼らは家族や地域社会に再統合される。

 42. The GoN promotes CBR and provides financial support to organizations to implement CBR activities in all districts. The major aim of these CBR programmes is to provide required service to empower and mainstream persons with disabilities in the community/family rather than providing services in institution.
 42. ネパール政府はCBRを促進し、すべての地区にCBR活動を実施するために組織に資金援助を提供する。これらのCBRプログラムの主な目的は、施設内でサービスを提供するのではなく、障害者に地域社会や家族の中でエンパワメントし、普通の生活のために必要なサービスを提供することである。

Freedom of expression and opinion, and access to information (art. 21)

 Issue 20: Please provide information on measures, including policies, adopted to ensure access of persons with disabilities, particularly persons with visual impairment and deaf persons, to public information, including access to Web, in accessible formats such as signage, tactile, plain language, Easy Read, and in other augmentative and alternative means and modes of communication.

 43. Freedom of opinion and expression is enshrined in the Constitution (Article 17). The Right to Information Act, 2007 and Right to Information Regulation, 2008 have further guaranteed the right to information to the citizens. The GoN is working on making information available in the accessible forms/formats to persons with disabilities. DPOs are also supported to prepare and publish materials in Braille, audio and other alternative accessible formats through annual financial assistance. A digital library is in operation in Prithvi Narayan Campus, Pokhara with the support of the GoN. The MOWCSW has also been supporting Radio programme (Apanga Aawaj: Voice of persons with disabilities). Nepali optical character recognition (OCR) has been introduced with the initiation of organisations of blind and visually impaired and the Government has supported this initiative. The GoN provides regular honorarium for sign language interpreters in 31 districts to facilitate access of deaf and hard of hearing people to information and communication. Both the national and private television channels broadcast news in sign language. The GoN has also financially supported other news media to encourage them to broadcast disability related news and activities. The GoN and development partners are increasingly using sign language interpreters in meetings, trainings, seminars and workshops.
 43. 意見及び表現の自由は、憲法(第17条)に盛り込まれている。2007年の情報権利法、2008年の情報権規則は、市民の情報に対する権利をさらに保障している。ネパール政府は、障害者に対して、アクセス可能な形式で情報を提供するように取り組んでいる。また、DPOは、毎年の財政援助を通じて、点字、音声、その他の代替的、利用可能な形式での資料の作成、公開を支援されている。ポカラ(ネパールの地名)にあるPrithvi Narayan キャンパスでは、ネパール政府の支援を受けてデジタル・ライブラリが使用されている。またMOWCSWは、ラジオ番組(Apanga Aawaj:障害者の声)を支援している。盲人と視覚障害者の組織の立ち上げにネパールの光学式文字認識(OCR)が導入され、政府はこの取組を支援してきた。GoNは、難聴者や聴覚障害者の情報通信へのアクセスを容易にするために、31の地区で手話通訳者のための定期的な謝礼金を提供している。国営のまたは民間のTVチャンネルは、手話でニュースを放送する。ネパール政府はまた、障害関連のニュースや活動について放送するように他のニュースメディアを支援している。ネパール政府と開発パートナーは、会議、研修、セミナー、ワークショップで手話通訳を利用する機会が増加している。

Education (art. 24)

 Issue 21: Please inform the Committee on the measures that the State party envisages to adopt in order to improve the overall enrolment of students with disabilities, particularly in primary (1.1%) and early secondary education (1.0%).

 44. As mentioned in the issue 8 above, the Department of Education (DoE) has been making efforts to increase enrollment of children with disabilities in school with the provisions of different types of scholarships and incentive such as residential scholarship; device and support scholarship; transportation scholarship; and motivational scholarship to encourage enrollment and continue their school. University Grant Commission (UGC) provides targeted scholarship to female students with disabilities at university level.
 44. 事前質問事項8で述べたように、教育省(Department of Education, DoE)は、障害のある児童が学校への入学することを奨励し、学校に通い続けるために、住居の奨学金、機器や支援奨学金、交通奨学金、動機付けの奨学金といった異なる種類の奨学金や報奨金を提供することで、障害のある児童の入学を促進するための取組を行ってきた。大学助成委員会(UGC)は、障害のある大学レベルの女子学生に的を絞った奨学金を提供している。

 45. The SSDP (2016-2022) has various provisions to increase school enrollment and retention rate of children with disabilities and develop a long-term inclusive education plan. It includes strategy for special and residential schools that will be gradually transformed to serve as resource centers of inclusive mainstream schools. The SSDP also involves strengthening diagnostic and referral mechanisms for children with disabilities and develop education resources that are adapted for children with special needs. The plan also makes provision to ensure gender and disabled friendly WASH facilities in school. The DoE and Special Education Council support to run special education, integration and inclusive education in Nepal.
 45. SSDP(2016-2022年)は、障害のある児童の入学率や在籍率を高め、長期的でインクルーシブな教育計画を策定するための様々な対策を行っている。それには、特別支援学校及び寄宿舎が、徐々に変革され包容的な普通学校のリソースセンターとしての役目を果たすための戦略も含まれている。また、SSDPには、障害のある児童のための診断及び照会の仕組みを強化し、特別なニーズのある児童に適合する教育資源を開発することも含まれている。この計画では、学校でジェンダーや障害の隔たりなく使い易いWASH施設を保証するための準備も行っている。教育省と特別支援教育評議会は、ネパールで特別支援教育、統合教育、インクルーシブ教育を実施することを支援している。

 Issue 22: Please provide information on the number and percentage of children with disabilities who have access to education, disaggregated by mainstream education, special classes, special schools and resource centers.

 46. Currently, a total of 76,470 children with disabilities have been enrolled in school education system, out of which, 64,660 children with disabilities are in basic education school (Grade 1 to 8) while 9,746 are in secondary school (grade 9 to 12) and 2,064 children with disabilities in Early Childhood Development (ECD).
 46. 現在、障害のある児童7万6,470人が学校教育機関に入学しているが、内訳は6万4,660人が基礎教育学校(グレード1-8)、9,746人が中学(グレード9-12 )、2,064人が幼児教育開発(ECD)となっている。

 Issue 23: Please provide information on the steps that the State party has taken in order to introduce inclusive education for students with disabilities (para. 76).

 47. The Education Act, 2016 (8th amendment) has made provisions to have a representative from NFDN in the National Education Council to advise on national education plans and programmes. The comprehensive Inclusive Education Policy, 2016 covers different aspects of reasonable accommodation such as teaching and learning materials development, human resource development, physical infrastructure in the universal design and maximum use of information and communication technology (ICT). Inclusive Education Section under the DoE promotes, monitors and further develops the inclusive education in the country. Tribhuvan University has also started inclusive education course at the Bachelor’s and Master’s level in education stream to develop relevant human resources for inclusive education

C. Specific obligations (arts. 31-33)
C. 特定の義務(第31条-第33条)

Statistics and data collection (art. 31)

 Issue 33: According to information before the Committee, the National Living Standards Survey 2010/11 showed that 3.6 percent of all people in the State party had some kind of disability, while the National Population and Housing Census 2011 reported a figure of about two percent (1.94%; 513,321). Please provide information on the methodology used to collect data on persons with disabilities and to ensure appropriate disaggregation of data on the basis of sex, age, ethnicity, indigenous identity and location. Please inform the Committee of the extent to which such data is used to formulate disability policies in the State party. Please also inform the Committee of the measures envisaged to enable use of the Washington Group Short Set of Questions on Disability in censuses and household surveys.

 58. The Nepal Living Standards Survey 2010/11 (NLSS-III) was the third round of the survey conducted by the GoN/CBS as a follow up of the previous two rounds in 1995/96 and 2003/04. All the three surveys followed the Living Standards Measurement Survey (LSMS) methodology. NLSS-III enumerated 7,020 households, of which 5,988 households are from the cross-section sample and the remaining 1,032 are from the panel sample. The National Population and Housing Census 2011 was a detail census that incorporated disability related questions as well. The individual form 1 contained questions related to type of disability, caste, ethnicity, sex and literacy rate. A special training manual on disability was developed to train the census enumerators and other staff. A total of 41,000 (31,000 enumerators; 7,900 supervisors; 1,100 district office staff; 278 area census supervisors and 80 district census officers) were mobilized to collect data. The census staffs were provided with the manual where disability disaggregated data collection methods were highlighted. Of the total persons with disabilities (about 2 % of the total population); the following table presents disaggregated data related to types of disability:
 58. ネパール生活基準調査2010/11(NLSS-III)は、1995/96と2003/04の2回にわたりGoN/CBSによって行なわれた調査の追跡調査として実施された3回目の調査である。3回にわたる調査はすべて生活水準実測調査(LSMS)方法論に基づいている。NLSS-IIIは7,020世帯(うち、5,988世帯は横断サンプル、残りの1,032世帯はパネル・サンプル)を対象とした。2011年全国人口住宅調査も、障害に関する質問を組み込んだ詳細国勢調査である。個票1は、障害、カースト、民族性、性別、識字率に関する質問を含んでいる。障害者に関する特別な研修マニュアルが、国勢調査員及び他の職員に向けて開発されている。合計41,000(国勢調査員31,000、スーパーバイザー7,900人、地区事務所職員1,100、国勢調査地区担当スーパーバイザー278人、国勢調査地区役員80人)が、データ収集のために動員された。国勢調査職員は、障害者に関するデータ収集が必要になる場面で、障害者に関する研修マニュアルを提供された。

 S.N Type of disability % of the disabled population
 1 Physical disability 身体障害 36.3
 2 Blindness/Low vision 視覚障害 18.5
 3 Deaf/Hard of hearing 聴覚障害 15.4
 4 Speech problem 言語障害 11.5
 5 Multiple disabilities 重複障害 7.5
 6 Mental disability 精神障害 6
 7 Intellectual disability 知的障害 2.9
 8 Deaf-Blind 盲ろう 1.8

National implementation and monitoring (art. 33)

 Issue 35: Please specify which entity has been appointed as the focal point for the implementation of the Convention and whether there is a coordination mechanism in the State party. Please inform the Committee of the measures taken to ensure the monitoring of the Convention by an independent monitoring mechanism established in accordance with the Principles relating to the status of national institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights (the Paris Principles) as adopted by the General Assembly in its Resolution 48/134.

 60. The Office of the Prime Minister and Council of Ministers (OPMCM) has been mandated for overall coordination and monitoring of implementation of the international human rights instruments to which Nepal is a party, including CRPD.
 60. 首相諮問会議室(OPMCM)が、CRPDを含めて、ネパールが締約国である国際人権文書の実施の全般的な調整と監視を義務付けられている。

 61. The Ministry of Women, Children and Social Welfare (MOWCSW) serves as the focal agency for the implementation of the CRPD. It coordinates and implements, as appropriate, the measures to protect and promote disability rights. A 20-member National Steering Committee chaired by the Minister at the MOWCSW, consisting of representatives of relevant ministries and DPOs coordinates the activities at the central level. Similarly, central CBR steering committee led by the Secretary at the MOWCSW coordinates CBR and disability programmes throughout the country. Additionally, each Local Level has a coordination committee responsible for the coordination of the activities related to the rights and interests of the persons with disabilities.
 61. 女性児童福祉省(Ministry of Women, Children and Social Welfare, MOWCSW)は、CRPDの実施のための中心機関として機能している。MOWCSWは、障害者の権利を保護し、促進するための措置を適宜調整し、実施する。MOWCSWの大臣が議長を務め、関連省庁とDPOの代表者からなる20人の国家運営委員会が中央レベルで活動を調整している。同様に、MOWCSWの長官が率いる中央CBR運営委員会は、全国のCBRと障害プログラムを調整している。さらに、各地方レベルには、障害者の権利と利益に関連する活動の調整を担当する調整委員会がある。

 62. The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC), as mandated by the Constitution, has been monitoring implementation of the Convention as an independent monitoring mechanism. In addition, NWC, NDC and NMC also monitor and promote disability rights from intersectional perspective. Further, National Inclusion Commission is entrusted also to promote inclusion of marginalized groups including persons with disabilities.
 62. 国家人権委員会(NHRC)は、憲法に義務付けられているように、独立した監視の仕組みとして、条約の実施を監視してきた。さらに、NWC、NDC、NMCは、部門横断的な視点から、障害者の権利を監視及び促進している。さらに、全国包容委員会も、障害者を含む社会的に周辺化されたグループの包容を促進するために委託されている。

6 訳者注:Pro Publicとは、ネパールにある非営利非政府組織。環境弁護士、ジャーナリスト、エコノミスト、エンジニア、消費者、女性権利活動家のコンソーシアムによって1991年に設立された。腐敗や不正に反対する声をあげ、政府機関に職務と責任を認識させる。
7 訳者注:ネパールのバス会社。